Getting started in photography? Here are some basic photography concepts that may be helpful for you:
Exposure: Exposure refers to the amount of light that reaches the camera’s sensor or film. It is controlled by three factors: aperture, shutter speed, and ISO.
Aperture is the size of the lens opening and controls the amount of light that enters the camera.
Shutter speed is the length of time that the camera’s shutter is open and controls the amount of time that the camera is exposed to light.
ISO is the sensitivity of the camera’s sensor to light and controls the camera’s sensitivity to light.
Composition: Composition is the way that elements in a photograph are arranged. Some basic composition techniques include the rule of thirds, leading lines, and framing.
The rule of thirds is a basic principle of photography that suggests that an image can be divided into nine equal parts by two equally-spaced horizontal lines and two equally-spaced vertical lines. It suggests that subjects should be placed along these lines or at the intersections of them for a more balanced and interesting composition.
Leading lines are lines in the photograph that lead the eye to the subject.
Framing is the use of elements in the photograph to frame the subject.
Lighting: Lighting is an important factor in photography. It can affect the mood, contrast, and overall look of a photograph. There are three types of lighting: natural, artificial, and flash.
Natural lighting is the light that is available in the environment, such as sunlight or moonlight.
Artificial lighting is light that is created by man-made sources, such as lamps and flashlights.
Flash is a burst of light that is produced by the camera’s flash unit.
If you have any specific questions about these concepts or anything else related to photography, feel free to ask!
A puppy needs to be fully vaccinated before it is safe for them to go out and about exploring. However, this doesn’t mean they need to spend the first 12 weeks of their lives cooped up without exposure to the outside world (in fact, this would do more harm than good).
Socialisation begins with the breeder, the key socialisation period for a puppy is 4-12 weeks.
We were thrilled that our puppy had come from a family environment where he experienced all the usual noise and activity within a busy family home within those first couple of months of his life. He’d met many people including lots of children and had many siblings to play with too.
At 8 weeks old, we brought Shackleton home and planned to continue his socialisation… But, how do you do this when you can’t take them for a walk yet?
In the first month we had Shackleton we helped socialise him by:
Introducing him to fully-vaccinated dogs in a secure environment (a.k.a our families brought their vaccinated dogs round to meet Shackleton in our garden and we took Shackleton to their gardens too)
Introducing him to friends and family
Carrying him around our favourite places such as the beach, park/woods, town/pet-friendly shops (he wasn’t allowed to put his paws on the floors and walk around but that didn’t mean he couldn’t safely experience the sights, smells, and sounds by being carried)
Sitting in busy(ish) places and watching the world go by (being social doesn’t necessarily mean meeting new people and dogs, for us it also meant being around general day to day life and simply watching everyone go about their day from the safety of a bench or the open boot of the car).
Picking up our new puppy, Shackleton, was one of the most exciting days (although most of it was spent sitting in the car and we were absolutely exhausted by the end of it). As many new owners do, we picked Shackleton up when he was 8 weeks old. At this age he was not yet fully vaccinated which meant we couldn’t start taking him out and about straight away.
Luckily, there was plenty for us to do at home and we have access to a secure garden so there was space for exploring and playing (and toilet training could begin immediately too).
Is An 8 Week Old Puppy Usually Fully Vaccinated?
Not usually, although they may have had their first of two doses of the vaccination. They should have veterinary records that tell you which vaccinations they have received so far.
At 8 weeks our puppy:
Had the first of the two vaccinations (the second was due 4 weeks later at 12 weeks old)
Had been health checked by the vet
Had been wormed at 5 and 7 weeks (his worming was due again at 12 weeks)
Getting Your New Puppy Settled
It takes time for a new puppy to settle into their new home and new surroundings, understandably so. We did find that we were able to help Shackleton feel more settled by playing lots of games with him, giving him plenty of attention and by placing the blanket that has the scent of his mum and litter mates onto his new cosy bed.
We found one of the best ways help our puppy settle in was to start building a bond with them through simple training. Within the first few days, Shackleton had learnt his name and the “sit” command and these simple first steps helped him to feel more confident and comfortable around us and in his new home. As he clearly enjoyed the process of learning new commands we continued to teach him the basics such as “lie down” and “roll over”.
Toilet Training Your New Puppy
One of the biggest challenges of having a new puppy is toilet training them. Not because it’s particularly difficult but because it is EXHAUSTING, you can’t relax as you’re always watching to see if your puppy starts sniffing around like they need to go outside.
We wanted to build Shackleton up for success so we would keep a close eye on him and take him out whenever we thought he MIGHT need to go out, this included when he woke up from a nap, when he had just eaten or drank something, when he sniffed around one spot and whenever we thought he looked a bit “suspicious” haha.
We also took him out into the garden every couple of hours (I’d pick him up and carry him at first to prevent accidents from happening on the way outside). We’d then place him on the grass so he could go for a wee/ poo. If he did, we would say “go for a wee” and reward him with chicken.
Regularly taking your new puppy outside is the best way to prevent accidents indoors (although they will inevitably happen so be prepared). Your puppy will learn that when they go outside to wee or poo they are rewarded and they will soon get the hang out going outside themselves but this is a process that requires patience and consistency.
Advice: When you take your puppy outside to go to the toilet, do not start playing with them. To be honest, you want to be as boring as possible so rather than your puppy getting distracted by you and thinking that every time you go into the garden it’s play time, they can instead sniff around and (hopefully) go to the toilet. Always make a fuss and reward your puppy when they do wee or poo outside.
Night Time With A New Puppy
We decided the best way to approach the nights with Shackleton was to use a crate. At first, we put the crate into our bedroom so he wouldn’t feel alone. The crate had a comfy bed and a blanket that smelt like Shackleton’s mum to help him feel safe and content. I’d take him outside a few times during the night (pick the puppy up and carry them outside to prevent accidents before you get outside) and then he’d go back into his crate to sleep.
We found he took a few minutes to quieten down and settle but then he’d sleep well.
Anyone who has been following the plight of Africa’s rhino will have noticed that population statistics are hard to come by. This week, years of silence have been broken regarding the rhino population in Kruger National Park (KNP). Unfortunately, the news is pretty grim.
Rhino Poaching Statistics At A Glance:
67% decline in Kruger’s white rhino population since 2011
35% decline in Kruger’s black rhino population since 2013
Approximately 3,529 white rhinos and 268 black rhinos remain in Kruger National Park
The official stats for rhino poaching in South Africa say 594 individuals were poached in 2019, a decrease from 769 the previous year
“SANParks contributes 34.4% and 34.9% respectively of South Africa’s black and white rhino populations. Primarily due to poaching in Kruger National Park, one black rhino sub-species, and white rhinos, have declined over the past decade.”
SANParks Annual Report 2019/2020
Kruger’s White Rhinos
The white rhino population in the Kruger has seen a steep decline of around 3,529 individuals, which represents a massive 67% of the white rhino population within the park. In 2011 there were 10,621 white rhinos in KNP.
Kruger’s Black Rhinos
In 2013, there were 415 black rhinos in Kruger. This figure has now dropped by 35% leaving only 268 black rhinos in the park in 2019.
In recent years, there have been poaching statistics and arrest/ incursion-related statistics released in South Africa. These indicated poaching was on the decrease while arrests were increasing. When viewed on their own, these statistics seem positive, however it is likely the poaching has been decreasing because of the huge population decrease. After all, less rhinos to poach means less poaching.
Of course, there have been incredible efforts from the anti-poaching, veterinary and conservation teams on the ground to reduce poaching in the area and this too would have an impact on the poaching figures.
It is difficult to have up-to-date information on populations and situations such as this but these latest sobering statistics have given us plenty to think about.
In an attempt to minimise the impact of rhino poaching on the population Kruger National Park began dehorning selected rhinos in the Greater Kruger area in 2019. Dehorning is a common tool that is used by wildlife owners and reserves across South Africa to try to deter poachers.
How Can We Help Save Rhinos?
These statistics are shocking and they give us a glimpse into what the reality of the situation is. They indicate an urgency and the necessity to step up before it is too late.
Don’t buy wildlife products – it may sound obvious but rhinos are being killed because there is a demand for rhino horn. Never buy rhino horn or products made from rhino horn. When the demand stops, the killing will too.
Raise awareness – tell your friends what is happening. It’s surprising how many people remain unaware of the plight of rhinos. Although often aware of the killing of rhinos for their horns, users of rhino horn tend to see themselves as disconnected from the rhino poaching crisis. Education and awareness are key.
Support charities working to save rhino – volunteer, donate, host a fundraising event, like/ comment/ share their social media posts to help them reach more people. Joining a reputable organisation means you become part of the solution.
Virunga National Park have announced 6 of their Park Rangers were killed in an attack on the morning of Sunday 10th January 2021. Another ranger was seriously wounded and has been taken to hospital in Goma for treatment.
The rangers were ambushed near Kabuendo, near the border of the park. It is believed the rangers were taken by surprise and had no opportunity to defend themselves. The attack has been blamed on local Mai-Mai groups, one of many militia groups operating in the region.
More than 200 rangers have lost their lives in the conservation war within Virunga National Park. Virunga is Africa’s oldest national park and is home to over half the world’s population of mountain gorillas. It is also the largest tropical rainforest reserve in Africa and has an incredible vast and varied landscape of volcanoes, mountains, forests, savannahs and lakes.
The Rangers who lost their lives in the attack:
BURHANI ABDOU Surumwe, aged 30 years
KAMATE MUNDUNAENDA Alexis, aged 25 years
MANENO KATAGHALIRWA Reagan, aged 27 years
KIBANJA BASHEKERE Eric, aged 28 years
PALUKU BUDOYI Innocent, aged 28 years
NZABONIMPA NTAMAKIRIRO Prince, aged 27 years
These young rangers tragically lost their lives protecting the national park. Rest in power.
For anyone who wants to offer help, Virunga has a range of funds including a Fallen Rangers Fund for Widows. This aims to financially support widows and families while also providing them with opportunities for personal development and work-based training.
This is an interesting report that gives insights into the operation of wildlife crime within South Africa. The study involved interviewing offenders convicted for their involvement in wildlife crimes including the poaching/ trade of rhino horn, abalone and cycads. The insights of the study suggest that targeting, arresting and prosecuting individuals further along the supply chain would be more impactful than simply arresting and prosecuting those at the lower levels of the chains i.e. poachers.
Discussions with offenders included the modus operandi, as seen here when talking to rhino poachers: “The majority of offenders claimed to have entered into the park or reserve at night (between 6pm and 9pm). Offenders stated that they encountered and shot a rhino early in the morning close to sunrise (between 4am and 6am) when visibility improved. Offenders claimed not to spend more than one day in the park or reserve due to fears of detection by law enforcement. Offenders claimed that if they did not encounter a rhino by the next day, they would exit the park and try again on a different day. Offenders were very aware of the increased enforcement efforts, particularly in Kruger National Park.”
It is not surprising that the main motivators for those involved in the illegal wildlife trade were financial concerns. The report noted that almost all of the offenders were from marginalized communities and had limited economic opportunities.
“Some first-time poachers who claimed to be responsible for cutting off the horn or carrying food and water claimed to be promised between ZAR28,000 and ZAR60,000 (~USD1,637–3,508) for their efforts, while other poachers and drivers who shared equally in the profits with their accomplices earned between ZAR62,000 and ZAR124,000 (~USD3,625–7,251). The value paid to the intermediary or “poaching boss” differed between ZAR81,000 and ZAR135,000 (~USD4,736–7,894) per kilogramme.”
Globally, the illegal wildlife trade is estimated to be more than USD72 billion annually. It is a trade that involves a complex network of individuals that move commodities from the source to the consumer.
The consumer demand for rhino horn is primarily from Asia, with Vietnam and China being the top markets.
A 2019 article discussed the results of a study looking at the demand for rhino horn in Vietnam.
The study involved interviewing people who use rhino horn in Vietnam. The study found that people used rhino horn for a variety of reasons but mostly for medicine (most prevalently treating hangovers) and as a status symbol. Other uses included using rhino horn as a way of honouring terminally ill relatives.
The study also found that wild rhino horn was preferred over farmed rhino horn and the consumers were not affected by concerns about rhino populations. The users were also not concerned about the legal repercussions of buying rhino horn, this is due to the users believing police and law enforcement would not be interested in rhino horn use (on a personal or small scale).
The issue is that, in a lot of places across the globe, the potential profits of trading in rhino horn far outweigh the risks involved.
What does it mean for rhino horn to be a status symbol?
Essentially this means people share rhino horn within their social and professional networks as a way of demonstrating their wealth. This can be seen to strengthen relationships as it can let others know that the person with rhino horn has money and (potentially) influence. Gifting of rhino horns is also a way of getting favours from people in positions of power.
Always call your local wildlife rescue centre if you have found a wild animal that is in need.
If you’re not sure if the animal needs help or not, the first thing to do is look for signs of injury and visually evaluate the animal from a safe distance. Ask yourself the following questions:
Is there any blood visible?
Is the animal showing any signs of weakness?
Does the animal have laboured breathing?
Is the animal seizing?
Is the animal conscious? (Is the animal conscious but immobile? The animal could simply be resting)
Has the animal been caught or trapped?
Can the animal move? If the animal is not able to move away from human contact it may be very injured or weak. If it moves away slowly, watch out for signs of injury or broken bones.
Most people call wildlife rehabilitation centres about baby animals that they think have been abandoned. A baby animal that is alone is often not abandoned or orphaned (although this is sometimes the case).
This is why it is important to first monitor the animal and look for signs of distress or injury. If the parents do not return or you see signs of distress or injury then intervention may be necessary.
A baby animal that is alone is often not abandoned or orphaned.
Although you are trying to help, intervening with a baby animal without first being sure the parents are not around is more damaging as its best chance of survival is with its family.
If you are interested in working within wildlife rehabilitation, this section will help you learn some of the basics.
First of all, it is important to understand that the aim of wildlife rehabilitation is to return wild animals to the wild. Some people may find this difficult or emotional but if you remember this from the very beginning you won’t get attached to the animals you care for in the way you do with a pet, instead you will be so happy and excited when it comes to release day as you know the animal is going back where it should be and, thanks to you and your team, has another chance at life in the wild.
Top tips when working in wildlife rehabilitation:
Stay calm. This work can be challenging as well as physically and emotionally demanding.
Remember that each animal has unique needs that are determined by the species, situation, personality and energy levels.
Be prepared for long hours and be flexible as there tends to be little routine and you are often “on call” 24/7 (this can be to deal with emergencies, help the intensive care cases or go out on rescues)
Education is an important part of wildlife rehabilitation. Be prepared to engage with the public and help people understand how to help animals in need and the significance of keeping wild animals in the wild.
“I want to work within wildlife rehabilitation, what do I need to know?”
Working with wildlife in this way requires:
Medical knowledge (understand the anatomy and physiology of the species you work with, know how to carry out health checks and develop or follow treatment plans)
Understand environmental needs (ensure the environment meets the needs of the animal and always monitor the environment for potential issues)
Understand the nutrition and diet requirements for the species you work with
Understand safe handling and care practices
Understand health and safety (it is extremely important to maintain a clean environment to avoid the spread of disease. Make sure you keep up to date with protocols and ensure you can clearly communicate health and safety issues to the community).